The present iteration of the GBD, GBD , improves on previous assessments and provides timely estimates of the mortality experience of populations globally. The GBD uses all available data to produce estimates of mortality rates between and for 23 age groups, both sexes, and locations, including countries and territories and subnational locations for 16 countries.
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Years of life lost YLLs were then calculated as the sum of each death multiplied by the standard life expectancy at each age. Population growth contributed to increased total deaths across the 20 leading Level 2 causes of mortality between and Improvements in global health have been unevenly distributed among populations. Deaths assigned International Classification of Diseases ICD codes for non-specific, implausible, or intermediate causes of death were reassigned to underlying causes by redistribution algorithms that were incorporated into uncertainty estimation.
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Decreases in the cause-specific mortality rate reduced the effect of population growth for all but three causes: For causes of death such as lower respiratory and enteric infections, more rapid progress occurred for children than for the oldest adults, and there is continuing disparity in mortality rates by sex across age groups.